Cystoscopic features of the ureteral orifices in children with vesicoureteral reflux




vesicoureteral reflux, ureteral orifice, cystoscopy, children


Purpose – to establish cystoscopic prognostic criteria for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children.

Materials and methods. Clinical material covers 270 patients with VUR II–IV grades aged 9 months to 14 years and 22 healthy children. The study included patients with VUR in the period of clinical and laboratory remission without symptoms of neurogenic bladder. During cystoscopy, the condition of the bladder mucosa was assessed; location, shape, hydrodistention degree, and ureteral orifices contractility.

Results. Patients with VUR were diagnosed ureteral orifices in the form of: horseshoes – 127 (47.04%) patients, stadium – 106 (39.26%) and golf holes – 37 (13.7%). They were in the zones: A – 13 (4.81%) children, B – 154 (57.04%), C – 67 (24.81%), D – 36 (13.33%), and were characterized by the hydrodistention degree: H0 – 7 (2.59%) patients, H1 – 173 (64.07%), H2 – 60 (22.22%) and H3 – 30 (11.11%). In children with VUR, sluggish peristalsis of the ureter orifices clearly prevailed – 252 (93.33%) cases, relative to active peristalsis in only 18 (6.67%) patients.

Conclusions. For ureteral orifices in the form of a stadium and with more pronounced signs of deepening, which are shifted to zone B and laterally to the sidewall of the bladder, with a hydrodistention degree above H1 has a positive association with VUR at the highest specificity of tests.

Unfavorable prognostic diagnostic markers for effective minimally invasive interventions in patients with VUR should be considered ureteral orifices, which combine such morpho-topographic characteristics as pronounced signs of deepening to the shape of a golf hole, lateralization to the sidewall of the bladder in zone D, and hydrodistention H3 degree.

The research was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki declaration. The study protocol was approved by the Local ethics committee of all participating institution. The informed consent of the patient was obtained for conducting the studies.

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.


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Original articles. Urology and gynecology